The United States Supreme Court on Thursday July 9, 2020 ruled that a huge part of Oklahoma is Native American land for certain purposes, siding with a Native American man who had challenged his conviction by Oklahoma state authorities in the territory.
The 5-4 United States Supreme Court decision, with an opinion authored by United States Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch, endorsed the claim of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation to the land, which encompasses 3 million acres in eastern Oklahoma, including most of the city of Tulsa.
The United States Supreme Court decision means that only federal authorities, no longer state prosecutors, can file charges against Native Americans who commit serious alleged crimes on that land, which is home to 1.8 million people (less than 15% are Native Americans on that land).
“Today we are asked whether the land these treaties promised remains an Indian reservation for purposes of federal criminal law,” United States Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote.
“Because Congress has not said otherwise, we hold the government to its word,” United States Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote.
The cases were based on the application of the Major Crimes Act, which gives federal authorities, rather than state prosecutors, jurisdiction over serious crimes committed by or against Native Americans in Native American territory. The Major Crimes Act is a law passed by the United States Congress in 1885 as the final section of the Indian Appropriations Act of that year. The Major Crimes Act is law that places certain crimes under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American in Native territory.
The Major Crimes Act followed the 1817 General Crimes Act, which extended federal jurisdiction to crimes committed in Native territory but did not cover crimes committed by Native Americans against Native Americans. The Major Crimes Act therefore broadened federal jurisdiction in Native territory by extending it to some crimes committed by Native Americans against Native Americans.
Above: What Lies Beyond The Edge Of Our Solar System?
The Voyager space probes have gone further into the unknown than any other spacecraft. With both probes officially in interstellar space, what have we learned?
In 1965, a PhD student figured out that every 176 years the four planets in our solar system align in such a unique way that it is possible to use their gravitational forces to slingshot from one planet to the next.
This insight, that came to fruition using just a slide rule and simple computer programs, became part of an ambitious mission to send two probes and golden records out into space for a grand tour.
Enter: The Voyagers.
The Voyager probes are two obscure looking robots, weighing roughly 800 kilograms with giant arms and big ears, it took 1,500 engineers and scientists to bring these robotic explorers to life.
The Voyagers took some of the first detailed snapshots of planets and moons – revealing Io’s volcanism, close-up details of Saturn’s icy rings, and Neptune’s great dark spot.
After traveling for more than 43 years, clocking in 18 billion kilometers traveled, the Voyagers are taking humanity into the next great beyond: interstellar space.
With the opportunity to visit Uranus and Neptune, the NASA engineers developed a mission within a mission, outfitting the probes with 11 different instruments, redundant systems, and autonomous controls.
Find out more about the Voyager mission, what we’ve learned so far, and the experts behind these remarkable achievements.
A black hole is a region of space where so much mass is packed together so densely that it forms what is called a singularity, and nothing can move fast enough to escape its gravitational pull—not even the fastest thing in the universe (we’re talking light) can escape the clutches of a black hole.
And because light can’t escape, no one can really see what is going on inside a black hole. So we end up relying on theories and equations to deduce exactly what is happening at the center of the event horizon.
There are two competing explanations to describe black holes: Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics.
Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity states the mass of a black hole bends spacetime so much that it becomes one single point of infinite density, but according to quantum mechanics there cannot be an infinitely small point.
It can be very very small, but not infinitely so. And this irreconcilable difference is one of the greatest debates in physics, since general relativity is our best description of gravity, while quantum mechanics has been called the most successful theory ever.
But some physicists believe white holes could square these two predictions. Find out more about white holes and how a white hole could reveal what is really happening inside a black hole on this episode of Elements.
Above: How SpaceX’s Starship Will Become The Most Powerful Rocket In The World | Countdown To Launch.
“When SpaceX was founded, its goal was to establish a human colony on Mars, and Starship might be the way to get there…”
In September 2019, Elon Musk unveiled the first iteration of his next-generation vehicle, Starship.
While SpaceX continues to push the limits, this next endeavor might be its most ambitious yet. SpaceX was founded with the intention of one day creating a human colony on Mars, and Elon Musk hopes that Starship and the Super Heavy rocket will be the way to get there.
Starship was built to carry 100 passengers and will serve as the spacecraft to shuttle both people and cargo to Earth’s orbit and beyond.
Starship has its six Raptors, but the real power behind this transportation system comes from the Super Heavy rocket, which has thirty-seven Raptor engines.
In its final form, the Starship and Super Heavy combination will result in the world’s most powerful launch vehicle ever developed, and SpaceX is working fast to bring this super project to life.
Find out more about SpaceX’s latest space transportation and exploration endeavor on this episode of Countdown to Launch.
* Japan is a country of more than 127 million people, but it rarely sees more than 10 gun deaths per year.
* Culture is one reason for the low rate, but gun control is also a major reason.
* Japan has a long list of tests that applicants must pass before gaining access to a small pool of guns.
Above: What If My Neighbor’s Child Was Genetically Modified Using Genetic Engineering?
Having genetically modified children is no longer a science fictional fantasy, but a very likely future scenario. Genetic engineering labs are on the edge of being able to create modified human beings, but what does that imply for humanity? Should we all first be pre-selected before deemed worthy to live on earth? While science has already answered this question, society as the ethical body of life still needs to have that conversation.
“Improving our way of life has always been a goal of science. Improving the human condition via gene editing is something many people strongly support and want to push forward. Just because I won’t be a designer human, doesn’t mean no one else should be a genetically modified human. Just because your feelings or your kids feelings are hurt due to someone else being better than you or being better than your child in every single way doesn’t mean that they should have to be subject to disease and weakness like the rest of us – like you, like me, like every other person on this planet. Plus, there are already people who are better than you and me in many different ways, maybe in almost every single way. No, that should not be an excuse against gene modification and human evolution.”
Above: Mystery Founder Of Bitcoin: Uncovering The Identity Of Satoshi Nakamoto (The Founder Of Bitcoin).
Bitcoin is a worldwide cryptocurrency and digital payment system called the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central repository or single administrator. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009. The system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary such as a bank. These Bitcoin transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain.
Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as Bitcoin mining. Bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Bitcoin can also be held as an investment, and experts agree that uncovering Satoshi Nakamoto’s identity could have an immense impact on bitcoin’s economics and internal politics.